After its annexation to Cleveland in 1872, the neighborhood now known as Fairfax underwent a period of rapid residential development which continued until 1920, when the area’s population reached 34,000. Fairfax has a rich heritage and was home to the first African American owned bank in Cleveland, Ohio. Fairfax was home to several notable people and a source of inspiration to many such as Langston Hughes, Jesse Owens, Dorothy Dandridge, and Bobby Womack to name a few.

The neighborhood is ideally located between downtown Cleveland and University Circle which affords easy access to virtually all of the city's attractions and businesses. Its boundaries are Chester Avenue to Woodland Avenue and East 77th to Stokes Boulevard. Fairfax is located in Ward 6 of Cleveland, Ohio. The councilperson is Blaine Griffin.

Euclid Avenue, near the neighborhood’s northern border, became the site of many of Cleveland’s largest and most architecturally distinguished churches.

Fairfax is home to two nationally recognized institutions. The foremost of these is the Cleveland Clinic, established in 1921 and now ranks as Cuyahoga County’s largest private employer. Karamu House is the country’s first inter-racial theater and arts center and was established in 1917. Karamu House has been located in the Fairfax neighborhood since 1943.

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